Sign 1: Memory loss that affects day-to-day abilities
Are you, or the person you know, forgetting things often or struggling to retain new information?
It's normal to occasionally forget appointments, colleagues’ names or a friend’s phone number only to remember them a short while later. However, a person living with dementia may forget things more often or may have difficulty recalling information that has recently been learned.
Sign 2: Difficulty performing familiar tasks
Are you, or the person you know, forgetting how to do a typical routine or task, such as preparing a meal or getting dressed?
Busy people can be so distracted from time to time that they may forget to serve part of a meal, only to remember about it later. However, a person living with dementia may have trouble completing tasks that have been familiar to them all their lives, such as preparing a meal or playing a game.
Sign 3: Problems with language
Are you, or the person you know, forgetting words or substituting words that don’t fit into a conversation?
Anyone can have trouble finding the right word to express what they want to say. However, a person living with dementia may forget simple words or may substitute words such that what they are saying is difficult to understand.
Sign 4: Disorientation to time and place
Are you, or the person you know, having problems knowing what day of the week it is or getting lost in a familiar place?
Have you ever forgotten what day of the week it is or can't remember why you went into your bedroom? It happens to all of us. People living with dementia can become lost on their own street, not knowing how they got there or how to get home.
Sign 5: Impaired judgement
Are you, or the person you know, not recognizing something that can put health and safety at risk?
From time to time, people may make questionable decisions such as putting off seeing a doctor when they are not feeling well. However, a person living with dementia may experience changes in judgment or decision-making, such as not recognizing a medical problem that needs attention or wearing heavy clothing on a hot day.
Sign 6: Problems with abstract thinking
Are you, or the person you know, having problems understanding what numbers and symbols mean?
From time to time, people may have difficulty with tasks that require abstract thinking, such as using a calculator or balancing a chequebook. However, someone living with dementia may have significant difficulties with such tasks because of a loss of understanding what numbers are and how they are used.
Sign 7: Misplacing things
Are you, or the person you know, putting things in places where they shouldn't be?
Anyone can temporarily misplace a wallet or keys. However, a person living with dementia may put things in inappropriate places. For example, an iron in the freezer, or a wristwatch in the sugar bowl.
Sign 8: Changes in mood and behaviour
Are you, or the person you know, exhibiting severe changes in mood?
Anyone can feel sad or moody from time to time. However, someone living with dementia can show varied mood swings – from calmness to tears to anger – for no apparent reason.
Sign 9: Changes in personality
Are you, or the person you know, behaving in a way that's out of character?
Personalities can change in subtle ways over time. However, a person living with dementia may experience more striking personality changes and can become confused, suspicious or withdrawn. Changes may also include lack of interest or fearfulness.
Sign 10: Loss of initiative
Are you, or the person you know, losing interest in friends, family and favourite activities?
It's normal to tire of housework, business activities or social obligations, but most people regain their initiative. However, a person living with dementia may become passive and disinterested, and require cues and prompting to become involved.
And one more sign to be aware of: Challenges understanding visual and spatial information
Are you or someone you know having problems seeing things correctly? Or coordinating visual and spatial information?
Do you or they have double vision? Or are there issues navigating space, or placing things easily and correctly on a table, such as a pencil or mug? Sometimes dementia can be the cause of these issues, and it's important to see a doctor and eye specialist to get everything checked out.
If you are concerned about any of these signs, the next step is to talk to your doctor. Only a qualified healthcare provider, after multiple assessment and tests, can confirm whether you or someone you know has dementia.
Not all symptoms for each type are listed on this page—just the most common ones. They are based on signs outlined by the Alzheimer Disease International. Visit the Alzheimer Disease International website to see these steps outlined in Spanish, Portuguese, Hindi, Chinese and other languages.